LOUIS J. FARRUGIA

Senior Lecturer


Department of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building,
University Of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ
Telephone +44 (0)141 330 5137
FAX +44 (0)141 330 4888

E-mail louis@chem.gla.ac.uk

My major areas of research interest are:

Some recent projects include:

Synthesis and structural variability in heteroplatinum clusters

We have prepared a number of examples of small heteroplatinum and palladium clusters which exhibit a remarkable diversity in the structure of the metal skeleton. One example is the cluster Ru3Pt(mu-H)(mu4-NO)(CO)10(P-Pr3) which contains an highly unusual mu-eta2-nitrosyl group. Standard electron counting rules cannot account for this variability, but we believe it is due to the flexibility of platinum with regard to its electronic environment. We use both standard single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques as well as EXAFS studies (in collaboration with Professor A. G. Orpen, Bristol). See here for further details of this project. The EXAFS technique is one of the few ways of studying metal-core geometries in solution phase

Solid state migration of metals in clusters

We have recently studied the disordered structures of simple carbonyls of the type M3(CO)12 for M=Fe, Ru, Os. We find that the disorder in the mixed metal triangles is dynamic in nature, and that at low temperatures, the three systems we have investigated sofar Fe2Ru(CO)12 , Fe2Os(CO)12 and FeRu2(CO)12 are perfectly ordered. The structure of FeRu2(CO)12 is particularly interesting, in that it provides the first example of a homoleptic M3(CO)12 with the D3 structure Through variable temperature X-ray crystallographic and solid state 13C MAS NMR we have shown that the most likely mechanism is one where the metal triangles move round in 60 degree steps, with the carbonyl ligands remaining relatively fixed. In particular the disordered structure of FeRu2(CO)12 provides a vivid picture of this migration pathway. See J.Chem.Soc. Dalton Trans. 1997 1783.

Solution fluxionality of hydrocarbyl ligands in clusters

We have investigated the fluxional properties of hydrocarbyl ligands such as sigma-(pi-vinyl) and alkynyl in small clusters using quantitative magnetisation transfer techniques such as DANTE and 2D EXSY. The EXSY experiment provides a "map" of all the site-to-site exchanges, and we have used this to investigate the migration of carbonyl ligands in a number of heterometallic clusters. These studies should provide insight into the mobility of ligands on metal surfaces, and under catalytic conditions.

Coordination chemistry of pendant arm macrocyclic ligands

In collaboration with Dr R. D. Peacock, we have been investigating the coordination chemistry of triaza-macrocycles with pendant arms bearing "soft" donor functionalities. A considerable number of such ligands with either one, two or three pendants arms with phosphine, alkene, alkyne or activated aryl donors have been prepared, and the coordination chemistry of these is being elaborated. The structure of one of these phosphine containing macrocycles is shown here.

I am also responsible for the software from
Chemical Crystallography, Glasgow including

Ortep-3 for Windows with new POV-Ray interface
WinGX - crystallographic program system for Windows


Ten Recent Publications Illustrating Research Interests

  1. A Structural Redetermination of Co4(CO)12 : Evidence for Dynamic Disorder and the Pathway of Metal Atom Migration in the Crystalline Phase. L. J. Farrugia, J. Organomet. Chem., 1999, 573, 60-66.

  2. Metal Complexes of New, Chiral, N2O2 Tetradentate Ligands and their use as Asymmetric Oxidation Catalysts, R. J. Cross, L. J. Farrugia, P. D. Newman, R. D. Peacock and D. Stirling. Inorg. Chem., 1999, 38, 1186-1192.

  3. N,Ní,N"-1,4,7-triazacyclononane with pendant alkyne arms: Crystal structures of [CuLí2][PF6]2, [NiLí2][ClO4]2 and CuL"Cl2 (Lí = N-(4-but-2-yne)-1,4,7-triazacyclo-nonane, L" = N-(5-pent-2-yne)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane). D. Ellis, L. J Farrugia and R. D. Peacock. Polyhedron 1999, 18,1229-1234.

  4. Syntheses, crystal structures and CD spectra of simple heterobimetallic transition metal binaphtholates. R.J. Cross, L.J. Farrugia, D.R. McArthur, R.D. Peacock and D.S.C Taylor, Inorg. Chem. 1999, 38, 5698-5702.

  5. WinGX Suite for Single Crystal Small Molecule Crystallography. L. J. Farrugia, J. Appl. Cryst. 1999, 32, 837-838.

  6. Dynamic Disorder and Fluxionality in M3(CO)12 Clusters: Variable Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Studies on FenRu3-n(CO)12 (n=1,2), and the Low Temperature Phase of Fe3(CO)12. L. J. Farrugia, A. L. Gillon, D. Braga and F. Grepioni, Organometallics, 1999 , 18, 5022-5033.

  7. Structure and absolute configuration of exo-syn-syn-h5-cyclopentadienyl-dicarbonyl h3-(1R,2S,3S)-1-phenyl-2-buten-1-yl)-molybdenum (II). A. Kuhl, L.J. Farrugia and P.J. Kocienski, Acta. Cryst Sect C. 1999 .C55, 2041-2043.

  8. Re-determination of the structure of the double salt D-[bis{tris(ethylene-diammine) cobalt(III) chloride}] sodium chloride hexa-hydrate. L. J. Farrugia, R. D. Peacock and B. Steward, Acta Cryst Sect. C 2000, C56, 149-151.

  9. Structural Re-determination of Rh4(CO)12 at 293 and 173 K, and Analysis of the Thermal Motion in Relation to the Dynamical Behavior. L. J. Farrugia J. Clust. Sci. 2000, 11, 39-53.

  10. A general route for the synthesis of triazacyclononane functionalised with one, two or three pendant phosphine arms. Crystal structures of [Zn2L12Cl3] [ClO4], [NiL1Cl(HOEt)] [ClO4] and [NiL1(NCS)2], L1 = N-(diphenylphosphinopropyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane. D. Ellis, L. J. Farrugia, P. A. Lovatt and R. D. Peacock, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2000, in the press.

back to Chemistry Staff Page