Prof. Lee Cronin

Group Leader
Senior Group Member

Lee Cronin was born in the UK and was fascinated with science and technology from an early age getting his first computer and chemistry set when he was 8 years old. This is when he first started thinking about programming chemistry and looking for inorganic aliens. He went to the University of York where he completed both a degree and PhD in Chemistry and then on to do post docs in Edinburgh and Germany before becoming a lecturer at the Universities of Birmingham, and then Glasgow where he has been since 2002 working up the ranks to become the Regius Professor of Chemistry in 2013 aged 39. He has one of the largest multidisciplinary chemistry-based research teams in the world, having raised over $35 M in grants and current income of $15 M. He has given over 300 international talks and has authored over 350 peer reviewed papers with recent work published in Nature, Science, and PNAS. He and his team are trying to make artificial life forms, find alien life, explore the digitization of chemistry, understand how information can be encoded into chemicals and construct chemical computers.

Member Publications

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Open Access

432. [Fe15]: a frustrated, centred tetrakis hexahedron, D. J. Cutler, M. K. Singh, G. S. Nichol, M. Evangelisti, J. Schnack, L. Cronin, E. K. Brechin, Chem. Commun., 2021, 57, 8925-8928, https://doi.org/10.1039/D1CC03919A.

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Open Access

431. Robotic Stepwise Synthesis of Hetero-Multinuclear Metal Oxo Clusters as Single-Molecule Magnets, T. Minato, D. Salley, N. Mizuno, K. Yamaguchi, L. Cronin, K. Suzuki, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2021, 143, 12809-12816, https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c06047.

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Open Access

430. Standardization and Control of Grignard Reactions in a Universal Chemical Synthesis Machine using online NMR, M. Bornemann-Pfeiffer, J. Wolf, K. Meyer, S. Kern, D. Angelone, A. Leonov, L. Cronin, F. Emmerling , Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202106323.

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Open Access

429. A robotic prebiotic chemist probes long term reactions of complexifying mixtures, S. Asche, G. J. T. Cooper, G. Keenan, C. Mathis, L. Cronin, Nat. Commun., 2021, 12, 3547.

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Open Access

428. Identifying molecules as biosignatures with assembly theory and mass spectrometry, S. M. Marshall, C. Mathis, E. Carrick, G. Keenan, G. J. T. Cooper, H. Graham, M. Craven, P. S. Gromski, D. G. Moore, S. I. Walker, L. Cronin, Nat. Commun., 2021, 12, 3033.

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427. A molecular computing approach to solving optimization problems via programmable microdroplet arrays, S. Y. Guo, P. Friederich, Y. Cao, T. Wu, C. Forman, D. Mendoza, M. Degroote, A. Cavell, V, Krasecki, R. Hickman, A. Sharma, L. Cronin, N. Gianneschi, R. Goldsmith, A. Aspuru-Guzik, Matter, 2021, 4, 1107-1124.

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Open Access

426. Influence of the Contact Geometry and Counterions on the Current Flow and Charge Transfer in Polyoxometalate Molecular Junctions: A Density Functional Theory Study, P. Lapham, L. Vilà-Nadal, L. Cronin, V. P. Georgiev, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2021, 125, 3599-3610.

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Open Access

425. Elucidating the Paramagnetic Interactions of an Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Radical-Functionalized Mn-Anderson Cluster, L. Cronin, C. -G. Lin, M. Hutin, C. Busche, N. L. Bell, D. -L. Long, Dalton Trans., 2021, 50, 2350-2353.

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Open Access

424. Automatic Generation of 3D-Printed Reactionware for Chemical Synthesis Digitization using ChemSCAD, W. Hou, A. Bubliauskas, P. J. Kitson, J-P. Francoia, H. Powell-Davies, J. M. P. Gutierrez, P. Frei, S. Manzano, L. Cronin, ACS Cent. Sci, 2021, 7, 212-218.

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Open Access

423. Optimization of Formulations Using Robotic Experiments Driven by Machine Learning DoE, L. Cao, D. Russo, K. Felton, D. Salley, A. Sharma, G. Keenan, W. Mauer, H. Gao, L. Cronin, A. Lapkin, Cell Reports Physical Science, 2021, 2, 100295.

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422. Digitizing Chemistry Using the Chemical Processing Unit: From Synthesis to Discovery, L. Wilbraham, S. Hessam M. Mehr, L. Cronin, Acc. Chem. Res, 2021, 54, 253-262.

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421. Convergence of multiple synthetic paradigms in a universally programmable chemical synthesis machine, D. Angelone, A. Hammer, S. Rohrbach, S. Krambeck, J. Granda, J. Wolf, S. Zalesskiy, G. Chisholm, L. Cronin, Nature Chem., 2021, 13, 63-69.

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Open Access

420. Peptide sequence mediated self-assembly of molybdenum blue nanowheel superstructures, S. She, W. Xuan, N. Bell, R. Pow, E. Garrido Ribo, Z. Sinclair, D. -L. Long, L. Cronin, Chem. Sci., 2021, 12, 2427-2432.

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419. Reactivity, Formation, and Solubility of Polyoxometalates Probed by Calorimetry, H. Traustason, N. Bell, K. Caranto, D. C. Auld, D. Lockey, A. Kokot, J. E. S. Szymanowski, L. Cronin, P. C. Burns, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2020, 142, 20463-20469.

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418. A universal system for digitization and automatic execution of the chemical synthesis literature, S. Hessam M. Mehr, M. Craven, A. Leonov, G. Keenan, L. Cronin, Science, 2020, 370, 101-108.

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417. Synthesis, Assembly, and Sizing of Neutral, Lanthanide Substituted Molybdenum Blue Wheels {Mo90Ln10}, E. Garrido Ribo, N. Bell, W. Xuan, J. Luo, D. -L. Long, T. Liu, L. Cronin, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2020, 142, 17508-17514.

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Open Access

416. Chemobrionics: From Self-Assembled Material Architectures to the Origin of Life, S. S. Cardoso, J. H. E. Cartwright, J. Cejkova, L. Cronin, A. De Wit, S. Giannerini, D. Horvath, A. Rodrigues, M. J. Russell, C. Ignacio Sainz-Diaz, A. Toth, Artif. Life, 2020, 26, 315-326.

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Open Access

415. A Modular Programmable Inorganic Cluster Discovery Robot for the Discovery and Synthesis of Polyoxometalates, D. Salley, G. Keenan, D. -L. Long, N. Bell, L. Cronin, ACS Cent. Sci, 2020, 6, 1587-1593.

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Open Access

414. A nanomaterials discovery robot for the Darwinian evolution of shape programmable gold nanoparticles, D. Salley, G. Keenan, J. Grizou, A. Sharma, S. Martin, L. Cronin, Nat. Commun., 2020, 11, 2771.

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413. Spontaneous formation of autocatalytic sets with self-replicating inorganic metal oxide clusters, H. N. Miras, C. Mathis, W. Xuan, D. -L. Long, R. Pow, L. Cronin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2020, 117, 10699-10705.

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Open Access

412. An autonomous chemical robot discovers the rules of supramolecular chemistry without prior knowledge, L. Porwol, D. Kowalski, A. Henson, D. -L. Long, N. L. Bell, L. Cronin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2020, 59, 11256-11261.

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Open Access

411. A programmable chemical computer with memory and pattern recognition, J. M. P. Gutierrez, A. Sharma, S. Tsuda, G. J. T. Cooper, G. Aragon-Camarasa, K. Donkers, L. Cronin, Nat. Commun., 2020, 11, 1442.

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Open Access

410. A crystallization robot for generating true random numbers based upon stochastic chemical processes, E. Lee, J. M. P. Gutierrez, A. Henson, E. K. Brechin, L. Cronin, Matter, 2020, 2, 649-657.

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Open Access

409. Optical monitoring of polymerizations in droplets with high temporal dynamic range, A. Cavell, V, Krasecki, G. Li, A. Sharma, H. Sun, M. P. Thompson, C. Forman, S. Y. Guo, R. Hickman, K. A. Parrish, A. Aspuru-Guzik, L. Cronin, N. Gianneschi, R. Goldsmith, Chem. Sci., 2020, 11, 2647-2656.

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Open Access

408. A curious formulation robot enables the discovery of a novel protocell behavior, J. Grizou, L. J. Points, A. Sharma, L. Cronin, Sci. Adv., 2020, 6, eaay4237.

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Open Access

407. Embedding alkenes within an icosahedral inorganic fullerene {(NH4)42[Mo132O372(L)30(H2O)72]} for trapping volatile organics, R. Pow, W. Xuan, D. -L. Long, N. Bell, L. Cronin, Chem. Sci., 2020, 11, 2388-2393.

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Open Access

406. Decoupled electrolysis using a silicotungstic acid electron-coupled-proton buffer in a proton exchange membrane cell, G. Chisholm, L. Cronin, M. D. Symes, Electrochimica Acta, 2020, 331, 135255.

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Open Access

405. Universal Chemical Synthesis and Discovery with ‘The Chemputer’, P. S. Gromski, J. Granda, L. Cronin, Trends Chem., 2020, 2, 4-12.

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Open Access

404. 3D designed and printed chemical generators for on demand reagent synthesis, S. Zalesskiy, P. Kitson, P. Frei, A. Bubliauskas, L. Cronin, Nat. Commun., 2019, 10, 5496.

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Open Access

403. Controlling the Reactivity of the [P8W48O184]40− Inorganic Ring and Its Assembly into POMZite Inorganic Frameworks with Silver Ions, C. Zhan, Q. Zheng, D. -L. Long, L. Vilà-Nadal, L. Cronin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, 131, 17442-17446.

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Open Access

Preprint 20. A Molecular Computing Approach to Solving Optimization Problems via Programmable Microdroplet Arrays, S. Y. Guo, P. Friederich, Y. Cao, T. Wu, C. Forman, D. Mendoza, M. Degroote, A. Cavell, V, Krasecki, R. Hickman, A. Sharma, L. Cronin, N. Gianneschi, R. Goldsmith, A. Aspuru-Guzik, ChemRxiv, 2019.

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Open Access

402. An [FeIII34] Molecular Metal Oxide, A. Dearle, D. Cutler, H. Fraser, S. Sanz, E. Lee, S. Dey, I. F. Diaz-Ortega, G. Nichol, H. Nojiri, M. Evangelisti, G. Rajaraman, J. Schnack, L. Cronin, E. K. Brechin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, 58, 16903-16906.

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Open Access

401. Tuning Redox Active Polyoxometalates for Efficient Electron‐Coupled Proton‐Buffer‐Mediated Water Splitting, J. Lei, J. -J. Yang, T. Liu, R. -M. Yuan, D. R. Deng, M. -S. Zheng, J. -J. Chen, L. Cronin, Q. -F. Dong, Chem. Eur. J., 2019, 25, 11432-11436.

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Open Access

400. Taming Combinatorial Explosion of the Formose Reaction via Recursion within Mineral Environments, S. Colón-Santos, G. J. T. Cooper, L. Cronin, ChemSystemsChem, 2019, 5, e1900014.

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Open Access

Preprint 19. An [FeIII34] Molecular Metal Oxide, A. Dearle, D. Cutler, H. Fraser, S. Sanz, E. Lee, S. Dey, I. Diaz-Ortega, G. Nichol, H. Nojiri, M. Evangelisti, G. Rajaraman, J. Schnack, L. Cronin, E. Brechin, ChemRxiv, 2019.

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Open Access

Preprint 18. Spontaneous Formation of Autocatalytic Sets with Self-Replicating Inorganic Metal Oxide Clusters, H. N. Miras, C. Mathis, W. Xuan, D.-L. Long, R. Pow, L. Cronin, ChemRxiv, 2019.

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399. Emergence of Function and Selection from Recursively Programmed Polymerisation Reactions in Mineral Environments, D. Doran, Y. M. Abul-Haija, L. Cronin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, 58, 11253-11256.

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Open Access

398. Ligand-Directed Template Assembly for the Construction of Gigantic Molybdenum Blue Wheels, W. Xuan, R. Pow, Q. Zheng, N. Watfa, D. -L. Long, L. Cronin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, 58, 10867-10872.

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Open Access

397. Anisotropic polyoxometalate cages assembled via layers of heteroanion templates, Q. Zheng, M. Kupper, W. Xuan, H. Oki, R. Tsunashima, D. -L. Long, L. Cronin, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2019, 141, 13479-13486.

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Open Access

Preprint 17. Enantioselective Recognition of Chiral Guests by the Water-Soluble Chiral [Mo132O372(H2O)72(x-Lactate)30]42- Nanocapsules, N. Watfa, W. Xuan, Z. Sinclair, R. Pow, Y. M. Abul-Haija, D. -L. Long, L. Cronin, ChemRxiv, 2019.

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Open Access

Preprint 16. Quantifying the Pathways to Life using Assembly Spaces, S. M. Marshall, D. G. Moore, A. R. G. Murray, S. I. Walker, L. Cronin, Arxiv, 2019.

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396. A multi-scale simulation study for optimization and variability evaluation of molecular based flash cell, V. P. Georgiev, L. Vilà-Nadal, L. Cronin, A. Asenov, IEEE Xplore, 2018.

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Open Access

395. Intuition-enabled Machine Learning beats the Competition when Joint Human-Robot Teams per-form Inorganic Chemical Experiments, V. Duros, J. Grizou, A. Sharma, S. Hessam M. Mehr, A. Bubliauskas, P. Frei, H. N. Miras, L. Cronin, J. Chem. Inf. Model, 2019, 59, 2664-2671.

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Open Access

394. Synthesis of polyoxometalate clusters using carbohydrates as reducing agents leads to isomer-selection†, E. Janusson, N. de Kler, L. Vilà-Nadal, D. -L. Long, L. Cronin, Chem. Commun., 2019, 55, 5797-5800.

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Open Access

Preprint 15. Exploration of Self-Propelling Droplets Using a Curiosity Driven Robotic Assistant, J. Grizou, L. J. Points, A. Sharma, L. Cronin, Arxiv, 2019.

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393. Charting a course for chemistry, A. Aspuru-Guzik, M.-H. Baik, S. Balasubramanian, R. Banerjee, S. Bart, N. Borduas-Dedekind, S. Chang, C. Corminboeuf, F. -X. Coudert, L. Cronin, C. Crudden, T. Cuk, A. G. Doyle, C. Fan, X. Feng, D. Freedman, S. Furukawa, S. Ghosh, F. Glorius, M. Jeffries-EL, N. Katsonis, A. Li, S. S. Linse, S. Marchesan, N. Maulide, A. Milo, A. R. H. Narayan, P. Naumov, C. Nevado, T. Nyokong, R. Palacin, M. Reid, C. Robinson, G. Robinson, R. Sarpong, C. Schindler, G. S. Schlau-Cohen, T. W. Schmidt, R. Sessoli, Y. Shao-Horn, H. Sleiman, J. Sutherland, A. Taylor, A. Tezcan, M. Tortosa, A. Walsh, A. J. B. Watson, B. M. Weckhuysen, E. Weiss, D. Wilson, V. W. -W. Yam, X. Yang, J. Y. Ying, T. Yoon, S. -L. You, A. J. G. Zarbin, H. Zhang, Nature Chem., 2019, 11, 286-294.

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Open Access

392. Environmental control programs the emergence of distinct functional ensembles from unconstrained chemical reactions, A. J. Surman, M. Rodriguez, Y. M. Abul-Haija, G. J. T. Cooper, P. S. Gromski, R. Turk-MacLeod, M. Mullin, C. Mathis, S. I. Walker, L. Cronin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2019, 116, 5387-5392.

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391. Integrated synthesis of gold nanoparticles coated with polyoxometalate clusters, S. Martin, Y. Takashima, C. -G. Lin, Y. -F. Song, H. N. Miras, L. Cronin, Inorg. Chem., 2019, 58, 4110-4116.

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Open Access

390. Integrated synthesis of nucleotide and nucleosides influenced by amino acids, I. Suarez Marina, Y. M. Abul-Haija, R. Turk-MacLeod, P. S. Gromski, G. J. T. Cooper, A. Olive Olive, S. Colon-Santos, L. Cronin, Communications Chemistry, 2019, 28, Article 2.

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389. An Electrospray Mass Spectrometry Investigation into the Formation of CPO-27, M. H. Rosnes, J. S. Mathieson, R. E. Johnsen, K. W. Tornroos, L. Cronin, P. D. C. Dietzel, Cryst. Growth Des., 2019, 19, 2089-2096.

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Prof. Leroy (Lee) Cronin

Prof Leroy (Lee) Cronin
Regius Chair of Chemistry
Cronin Laboratory
School of Chemistry
Joseph Black Building
University of Glasgow
Glasgow G12 8QQ
Tel: +44 141 330 6650
Email: lee.cronin@glasgow.ac.uk

Positions Available

There are a number of PhD and post doctoral positions available in the Cronin group. For more information please visit www.jobs.ac.uk or contact Professor Lee Cronin directly


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